Explore articles, books and video about the relationship between police violence, racism in the criminal justice system, and the incarceration crisis in America.
Blue-on-black violence: a provisional model of some of the causes. (Article)
By Devon W. Carbado (2016) - This Article offers a theoretical model that explains the persistence of what the author calls "blue-on-black violence. " This is an essay useful for students taking composition classes.
Critical perspectives on police, policing, and mass incarceration. (Article)
By Richard Delgado and Jean Stefanic (2015) - This article covers police and the mass incarceration of minorities.
I once passed a counterfeit note, just like George Floyd, but no one tried to squeeze the life out of me; Every time that race riots erupt in the States, the reason is always the same: police brutality. (News Article)
By Malachi O'Doherty (2020) - An interview highlighting the different in treatment of people accused of committing the same crime.
LA's History Of Racial Tensions And Police Brutality, Revisited (Audio)
By Ailsa Change (2020) - Broadcaster Ailsa Change interviews protesters at a rally for George Floyd.
Mapping fatal police violence across U.S. metropolitan areas: Overall rates and racial/ethnic inequities, 2013-2017 (Article)
By Gabriel Schwartz and Jaquelyn Jahn (2020) - This study uses inverse-variance-weighted multilevel models to estimate overall and race-stratified rates of fatal police violence for all Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSAs) in the U.S. (2013–2017), as well as racial inequities in these rates.
Police Brutality in America Is About Class, Not Race (Essay)
By Joseph Kishmore (2016) - This is an essay where the author poses the question if police brutality is due to class vs. race . This article is useful for students taking compos.tition classes.
Police Violence and the African American Procedural Habitus (Article)
By Trevor George Gardner (2020) - An essay on how an African American should respond to a race-based police stop and what approach, disposition, or tactic will minimize his risk within the context of the police stop of being subject to police violence.
The Trayvon Generation (Article)
By Elizabeth Alexander (2020) - The author explores the systemic racism and violence being experienced by the African American community in the U.S. Topics discussed include the May 2020 killing of African American man George Floyd by a Minneapolis police officer in Minnesota, the exposure of young African Americans to stories of violence and discrimination, and the need to educate these children about racist violence in the country.
The Demographic Divide: Population Dynamics, Race and the Rise of Mass Incarceration in the United States (Article)
By Michael C. Campbell and Matt Vogel (2019) - This manuscript examines whether certain fundamental demographic changes in age structures across racial groups might help explain incarceration rates in the United States. It argues that a “demographic divide”—a growing divergence in the age structures of blacks and whites—was an important factor that contributed to the nation’s rising incarceration rates.
Ideology, Diversity, and Imprisonment: Considering the Influence of Local Politics on Racial and Ethnic Minority Incarceration Rates. (Article)
By Garrick L. Percival (2010) - This studies the influence of local (county) politics on minority incarceration rates. Counties' ideological orientations and racial and ethnic contextual characteristics significantly impact minority incarceration rates.
The Joint Effects of Race, Ethnicity, Gender, and Age on the Incarceration and Sentence Length Decisions (Article)
By Tina L. Freiburger and Alyssa M. Sheeran (2020) - This article examines the effects of race, ethnicity, gender, and age on sentencing decisions. The results indicate that Black and male defendants were more likely to be incarcerated in jail as opposed to receiving a probation sentence than White and female defendants.
Racial Disproportionality in U.S. State Prisons: Accounting for the Effects of Racial and Ethnic Differences in Criminal Involvement, Arrests, Sentencing, and Time Served. (Article)
By Allen J. Beck (2018) An important indicator of discrimination in the criminal justice system is the degree to which race differences in arrest account for racial disproportionality in prisons (“accountability”). A recent National Academy of Sciences (NAS) study raised concerns by reporting low and declining estimates of accountability.
White privilege, juvenile justice, and criminal identities: a qualitative analysis of the perceptions and self-identification of incarcerated youth. (Article)
By Rachel A. Feinstein (2015) - This study examines in-depth interview data from thirty male juveniles incarcerated in a private correctional facility in the Midwest. Youth of color were more likely than white youth to report the feeling that other community members viewed them as criminal before and after being arrested.
It's Not Just About Race, It's About Power. (Article)
By Matt Welch (2015) - The article presents the author's perspectives on the role of race on the criminal justice system in the U.S.
Race, Crime, and Criminal Justice: Fifty Years Since The Challenge of Crime in a Free Society. (Article)
By April D. Fernandes and Robert D. Crutchfield (2018) - A historical view of race and criminal justice in 1967
Breaking poverty: Crime, poverty often linked. (News Article)
By John N. Mitchell (2018) - The author connects childhood poverty and trauma and the never ending cycle it creates.
Household Poverty and Nonfatal Violent Victimization, 2008–2012. (Report - PDF)
By the Bureau of Justice Statistics (2014) - A Study conducted by the US department of Study connecting household poverty to non violent victimization. Uses data collected from 2008-2012.
Murder at Freedom's Gate: Poverty, Race, & Education in Americas. (Article)
By Ericka Aiken (2013) - Article detailing the relationship of race, poverty, education, and violence with related statistics.