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Hawthorne at Salem

Hawthorne - Literature

The Duston Family

Introduction to "The Duston Family"

Materials prepared by: 

Joseph R. Modugno, Department of English
North Shore Community College, Danvers, MA

"The Escape of the Duston Family," illustration from "The Duston Family" by Nathaniel Hawthorne.
"The Escape of the Duston Family," illustration from "The Duston Family" by Nathaniel Hawthorne.(courtesy of Peabody Essex Museum, Salem, MA)
 
Hawthorne as Editor

In January of 1836, at the recommendation of publisher Samuel G. Goodrich, Nathaniel Hawthorne accepted the editorship of the Boston-based American Magazine of Useful and Entertaining Knowledge. At 32 years of age, Hawthorne left Salem to take his new position with the hope of broadening his literary career and securing a regular income. For a yearly salary of $500, he was expected to compile and edit the contents of the monthly publication, which was owned and operated by the Boston Bewick Company.1

From the start, Hawthorne found himself struggling to produce material to fill the pages of the magazine. With little assistance from the company, he was forced to supply and edit nearly all of the content himself. He wrote biographical sketches and brief essays on history, geography, science, and the arts. He summarized information from a wide range of published sources, often including amusing topics and anecdotes, such as, "The Science of Noses," "The Uses of Dead Animals," and "The [Spontaneous] Combustion of a Professor of Mathematics." To meet the considerable monthly quota for the magazine, he often resorted to reprinting excerpts of essays or poetry from American and English books. Unable to afford or acquire company funds for a membership at the Boston Athenaeum, Hawthorne relied upon the assistance of his sister Elizabeth in Salem, who responded to his frenzied letters for help by sending him quotations and summaries from books in the Salem Athenaeum.2 "Concoct, concoct, concoct," he wrote her. "I make nothing of writing a history or biography before dinner. Do you the same."

Along with locating and composing brief articles of "useful and entertaining" knowledge, the Bewick Company officials required Hawthorne to write commentaries or sketches to complement the wood engravings they wished to highlight. These illustrations were often selected at the last minute and with little or no regard for Hawthorne's opinion. The quality often varied. Samuel Goodrich, who had published some of Hawthorne's first short stories in The Token, was a stockholder and director in the Bewick Company. According to B. Bernard Cohen, Goodrich's principal interest was in promoting the work of engravers.3 Cohen indicates that it was probably Goodrich who provided the engraving shown on the top of this page and asked Hawthorne to write a complementary piece for the magazine. In any case, "The Duston Family" sketch, inspired by the engraving, appeared with the print in the May 1836 issue of the American Magazine of Useful and Entertaining Knowledge.

The engraving entitled "The Escape of the Duston Family" was a larger version of a similar engraving first published in Samuel G. Goodrich's Peter Parley's Method of Telling about the History of the World to Children (1832). While composing his Duston Family sketch, Hawthorne drew upon Peter Parley's Method and borrowed specifics from B. L. Mirick's The History of Haverhill, Massachusetts (1832) and Cotton Mather's Puritan history, Magnalia Christi Americana(1702).4 These works related the dramatic experiences of Thomas Duston and Hannah, his wife.

Hannah was a forty-year old mother of eight taken captive with her newborn daughter during an Indian raid on Haverhill, Massachusetts, March 15, 1697. Hannah witnessed the brutal killing of her baby and several of her neighbors. Later in her captivity, while detained on an island in the Merrimack River in central New Hampshire, she acquired the assistance of two other English captives--fifty-one year old Mary Neff of Haverhill and fourteen-year old Samuel Leonardson of Worcester, Massachusetts-and killed ten of their Indian captors.5

Before leaving with her companions, Hannah insisted that the three scalp the dead Indians as proof of their accomplishment. Upon their return to the English settlements, Duston, Neff, and Leonardson received high praises and a generous payment for the ten scalps. 6 Hannah was viewed as a frontier hero, and her story soon entered into American folklore.

B. Bernard Cohen points out that "'The Duston Family' is undoubtedly typical of Hawthorne's method of writing during his editorship of the magazine . . . . In order to lessen the pressure created by the necessity of hasty composition, he relied heavily on books he had already read and whose attractions had never left his memory." 7 The Duston Family sketch, in particular, Cohen believes, illustrates that "[Hawthorne] was able to mold the material which he derived elsewhere into a creation that definitely reveals the stamp of his maturing artistry and imagination." 8

In his letters to his sisters, however, Hawthorne expressed little satisfaction with his writing or his position. He complained to Louisa, "I am so busy with agents, clerks, engravers, stereotype printers, devils-and the devil knows what all-that I have not much time to write." In a letter to Elizabeth he declared that his contributions to the magazine were "bad enough to satisfy anybody," and added apologetically, "I can't help it."

Frustrated by the relentless hackwork, his lack of editorial control, and the company's lack of payment (by May he had received only $20 from the publishers and Goodrich still owed him payment for several stories), Hawthorne resigned from the magazine. He stayed in Boston for a short time to work on Goodrich's Peter Parley's Universal History. Goodrich paid him $100, which he gave to Elizabeth as compensation for her assistance. After eight months in Boston, feeling tired and discouraged, Hawthorne returned home to Salem. Arlin Turner in Hawthorne as Editorexplains that the aspiring author "could not reconcile himself long to compiling a monthly hodge-podge of 'useful and entertaining knowledge.' "9 In an editorial note in the August issue of the magazine, Hawthorne announced his departure and offered some comments on his experience as editor:

It is proper to remark that we have not had full controul over the contents of the Magazine; inasmuch as the embellishments have chiefly been selected by the executive officers of the Boston Bewick Company, or by the engravers themselves; and our humble duty has consisted merely in preparing the literary illustrations. In some few cases, perhaps, the interests of the work might have been promoted by allowing the Editor the privilege of a veto, at least, on all engravings which were to be presented to the Public under his auspices, and for which his taste and judgment would inevitably be held responsible.
In his 1879 biography of Hawthorne, Henry James remarked that "There is something pitiful in this episode, and something really touching in the sight of a delicate and superior genius obliged to concern himself with such paltry undertakings. The simple fact was that for a man attempting at that time in America to live by his pen, there were no larger openings; and to live at all Hawthorne had, as the phrase is, to make himself small."10

Despite his artistic frustrations at the American Magazine and the limits of a literary career in the 1830s, Hawthorne still managed to produce a handful of writings that, according to Arlin Turner, "bear the recognizable stamp of the author's genius. . . and may well be included in the Hawthorne canon."11

"The Duston Family" sketch is not one of Hawthorne's most accomplished works, but it reveals something of the moral imagination of its author. The Duston captivity story-and its subsequent transformations in American lore and literature-must have intrigued the young Hawthorne who was discovering in his native history the subjects and themes for some of his best writing. Given his particular interests in moral conflicts and Puritan bigotry, it's easy to see why his Duston sketch turned out as it did. His judgement in "The Duston Family" is noticeably clear: The Indians are victims and Thomas Duston is the real hero. Hannah is the avenging mastermind, a "raging tigress!" driven to heartlessness and murder by the darker impulses of human nature. This, of course, would be the subject Hawthorne would explore repeatedly in his greatest literary achievements.


Notes:

1. The Boston Bewick Company, no. 47 Court Street, was an association of authors, artists, printers, and bookbinders. The American Magazine of Useful and Entertaining Knowledge (1834-1837) was founded by Freeman Hunt of Quincy, MA. Numbers 7-12 (Mar. 1836 - Aug. 1836) of Volume 2 of the magazine were edited anonymously by Nathaniel Hawthorne with the assistance of his sister Elizabeth.

2. Elizabeth Manning Hawthorne (b.1802, d.1883). Hawthorne also relied on his sister's assistance when he contributed to Samuel G. Goodrich's children's book Peter Parley's Universal History (1837).

3. B. Bernard Cohen, "The Composition of Hawthorne's 'The Duston Family,'" The New England Quarterly 21 (1948): 236-241.

4. The Duston story was first presented in Cotton Mather's sermon Humiliations followed by Deliverances (1697) then in Decennium Luctuosum (1702), and finally in Magnalia Christi American (1702). The name has several spellings: Duston, Dustun, Dustin, Dustan.

5. The Duston house was the first to be attacked in this raid, located on the northwesterly edge of the settlement. Thomas Duston and his seven children escaped to safety in one of the six garrison houses in the town. The island in the Merrimac is, according to tradition, Contoocook, sometimes called Dustin Island in Boscawen, NH. Of the ten Indians killed by Hannah and her two companions, six were children and two were adult women. Only two Indians escaped alive: a young boy and a woman who was badly wounded.

6. Though the bounty on Indian scalps had expired, the Province of Massachusetts Bay-in agreement with public support--awarded £25 to Hannah and £12 10s. each to Mary Neff and Samuel Leonardson. The Dustons may have received more money to compensate Thomas, the actual petitioner to the court, for the loss of "his estate" to fire during the Haverhill Indian raid.

7. Cohen, 240-41.

8. Cohen, 241.

9. Arlin Turner, ed., Hawthorne as Editor (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State UP, 1941).

10. Henry James, Nathaniel Hawthorne, ed. Dan McCall (Ithaca: Cornell UP, 1998).

11. Turner, Hawthorne as Editor.

Literature Related to "The Duston Family"

"The Escape of the Duston Family," illustration from "The Duston Family" by Nathaniel Hawthorne.
"The Escape of the Duston Family," illustration from "The Duston Family" by Nathaniel Hawthorne. (courtesy of Peabody Essex Museum, Salem, MA)
 
Excerpts from "The Duston Family" Full text of "The Duston Family"An article published in the fall 2016 issue of American Ancestors which contains an excerpt from Massacre on the Merrimack, a book by Jay Atkinson which examines the story of Hannah Duston. The article briefly recounts the events surrounding Duston’s capture and revenge and then presents the excerpt from Chapter IV which picks up the story after the Abenaki Indians brutally murder Hannah Duston’s newborn baby and

recounts the journey of Duston and Mary Neff, the woman who had been helping her care for her newborn, as the Indians march them out of Haverhill after their raid on the settlement.

New York Times article "Retracing a Vengeful Mother’s Path of Escape" by Jay Atkinson, Nov 15, 2015 Atkinson writes about his journey on the Merrimack River, near Concord, NH, retracing Hannah Duston’s 1697 escape from captivity by the Abenaki warriors.

Text of Magnalia Christi Americana; or The Ecclesiastical History of New England (1702) by Cotton Mather (1663-1728)

Text of The Hannah Dustin Story: Original Accounts From Various Diaries (1697-1700)

Text of Hannah Dustin’s Letter to the Elders of the Second Church in Haverhill, 1724, (Haverhill Historical Society) [From Helen deN. Ford’s The Starshine of Mrs. Hannah Dustin, 1978]

Text of The Thomas and Hannah Dustin Story From "Letter XXXIX" in Timothy Dwight’s Travels in New England and New York, 1821-22.

 

Text of John Greenleaf Whittier,"The Mother’s Revenge" From Legends of New England (1831)

Text of H. D. Thoreau’s Retelling of the Hannah Dustin Story [From A Week on the Concord and Merrimack Rivers, "Thursday" section, 1849]

Text of On the Duston Family Name From The Cheney Genealogy by Rev. Charles Henry Pope, 1897.

Text of John Greenleaf Whittier (1807-1892) From Legends of New England (1831) "The Indian's Tale"

Text of John Greenleaf Whittier (1807-1892) From Legends of New England (1831) "Metacom"

Text of "Lovewell's Fight," Anonymous

Captain John Lovewell (some spell it Lovell) was a well-known Indian fighter and the leader of a company of men who attacked Indian villages along the New England frontier. Lovewell was killed and most of his men shot down during an ambush while raiding the Piggwackett Indians on May 8th, 1725. Lovewell's defeat became the subject of narratives, sermons, and a popular ballad. "Lovewell's Fight" was written shortly after the Battle of May 8th. Capt. Lovewell lived at Dunstable, now part of Nashua, New Hampshire, and it was here that Hannah Duston, Mary Neff, and Samuel Lenorson spent their first night after escaping from Contoocook Island on March 30, 1697. Hawthorne, in 1832, used Lovewell's Fight in his story "Roger Malvin's Burial." The characters, Reuben Bourne and Roger Malvin, are both wounded in the famous fight. Malvin dies from his wounds and remains unburied by the younger Bourne, who is left haunted and guilt-ridden.

 

Text of Thoreau’s Reflections on the Indians and White Settlement From A Week on the Concord and Merrimack Rivers, "Sunday" section, 1849

Text of Hawthorne's Farewell Note as Editor of The American Magazine of Useful and Entertaining Knowledge, August 1836.

Petition of Hannah and Thomas Duston, Mary Neff and Samuel Leonardson to the General Court of Massachusetts, from Whitford, Kathryn. “Hannah Dustin: The Judgement of History.” Essex Institute Historical Collections. Vol. CVIII, No. 4 (October 1972), 308-09. Used with permission.

Hannah Bradley’s Captivity Account. Like Hannah Duston, Hannah Bradley was taken captive by the Indians during the Haverhill Raid of 1697. She was in the Indian camp where the Native woman wounded by Duston on Contoocook Island sought refuge. This is her account of her experience.

“Such Was the Tumultation These Women Made”: The Women of Marblehead Wreak Revenge Upon Indian Captors, 1677 by Robert Roules of Marblehead.

Original Documents Related to "The Duston Family"

American Magazine of Useful and Entertaining Knowledge
Mary Rowlandson's Captivity Narrative
Robert B. Caverly's Heroism of Hannah Duston
Title Pages
Maps
Other

 

American Magazine of Useful and Entertaining Knowledge

Letters to Hawthorne Regarding His Position as Editor of the American Magazine of Useful and Entertaining Knowledge
 

\"The Escape of the Duston Family,\" illustration from \"The Duston Family\" by Nathaniel Hawthorne.
"The Escape of the Duston Family," illustration from "The Duston Family" by Nathaniel Hawthorne.
From The American Magazine of Useful and Entertaining Knowledge vol. II, published by the Boston Bewick Company, 1836 (courtesy of Peabody Essex Museum, Salem, MA)
Title Page of <i>The American Magazine of Useful and Entertaining Knowledge</i> containing \"The Duston Family\"
Title Page of The American Magazine of Useful and Entertaining Knowledge containing "The Duston Family"
vol. II, published by the Boston Bewick Company, 1836 (courtesy of Peabody Essex Museum, Salem, MA)
Illustration from first page of \"The Duston Family\" by Nathaniel Hawthorne
Illustration from first page of "The Duston Family" by Nathaniel Hawthorne
from The American Magazine of Useful and Entertaining Knowledge vol. II, published by the Boston Bewick Company, 1836  (courtesy of Peabody Essex Museum, Salem, MA)
Second page of "The Duston Family"
Second page of "The Duston Family"
 (courtesy of Peabody Essex Museum, Salem, MA)
Last page of "The Duston Family"
Last page of "The Duston Family"
 (courtesy of Peabody Essex Museum, Salem, MA)

Mary Rowlandson's Captivity Narrative

Illustration from Mary Rowlandson's Captivity Narrative, 1770 Edition.
Illustration from Mary Rowlandson's Captivity Narrative, 1770 Edition.
Frontispiece of Mary Rowlandson's Captivity Narrative, 1770 Edition. (courtesy of The American Antiquarian Society.)
<I/>A True History of the Captivity & Restoration of Mrs. Mary Rowlandson, A Minister's Wife in New-England,</I> London, 1682.
A True History of the Captivity & Restoration of Mrs. Mary Rowlandson, A Minister's Wife in New-England, London, 1682.
Title Page of the London Edition of Mary Rowlandson's Captivity Narrative, 1682, the first captivity narrative to become a best-seller. 
Title Page of the Second Edition of Mary Rowlandson's <I/>The Soveraignty & Goodness of God, Together, With the Faithfulness of His Promises Displayed; Being a Narrative of the Captivity and Restoration of Mrs. Mary Rowlandson,</I> 1682, Cambridge, 1682.
Title Page of the Second Edition of Mary Rowlandson's The Soveraignty & Goodness of God, Together, With the Faithfulness of His Promises Displayed; Being a Narrative of the Captivity and Restoration of Mrs. Mary Rowlandson, 1682, Cambridge, 1682. 
Rowlandson's narrative of her 11-week captivity among the New England Indians during King Philip's War is the original and classic Indian captivity narrative. It was the model from which the popular literary genre developed. The Soveraignty and Goodness of God was the first published narrative by an English-American woman and one of the first best-sellers in American literature. It was printed in 1682 in both London and in Cambridge. The London edition bore the title A True History of the Captivity and Restoration of Mrs. Mary Rowlandson, A Minister's Wife in New England, downplaying the Puritan religious interpretation of the experience. Coincidently, Mary Rowlandson had a male Indian servant in her Lancaster house that twenty years later would be Hannah Duston's captor and "master.” Gordon M. Sayre states that Rowlandson's narrative provides the "foundation of a myth that transcends literature, reaching deep into Anglo-America's history and psyche."  (courtesy of The Boston Public Library.)
Title Page Illustration from Mary Rowlandson's Captivity Narrative, 1773 Edition.
Title Page Illustration from Mary Rowlandson's Captivity Narrative, 1773 Edition.
Title Page Illustration from Mary Rowlandson's Captivity Narrative, 1773 Edition. (courtesy of The American Antiquarian Society.)
Title page and illustration from <I/>A Narrative of the Captivity, Sufferings, and Removes of Mrs. Mary Rowlandson</I>,Boston: John Boyle, 1773.
Title page and illustration from A Narrative of the Captivity, Sufferings, and Removes of Mrs. Mary Rowlandson,Boston: John Boyle, 1773. 
Mary Rowlandson's captivity narrative, first published in 1682, was reprinted and reedited throughout the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. The book was especially popular during times of national crisis. It is a classic example of Puritan prose style and method.  (courtesy of The American Antiquarian Society.)

Robert B. Caverly's Heroism of Hannah Duston

Title Page of Robert B. Caverly's <I/>Heroism of Hannah Duston : together with the Indian Wars of New England,</I> 1874.
Title Page of Robert B. Caverly's Heroism of Hannah Duston : together with the Indian Wars of New England, 1874. 
Robert Boodey Caverly (1806-1887), Heroism of Hannah Duston : together with the Indian Wars of New England, 1874.  
Historical Address at Contoocook Island, June 17, 1874, Pages 388-389.
Historical Address at Contoocook Island, June 17, 1874, Pages 388-389.
From Heroism of Hannah Duston : together with the Indian Wars of New England, 1874, by Robert Boodey Caverly (1806-1887).  
Historical Address at Contoocook Island, June 17, 1874, Pages 390-391.
Historical Address at Contoocook Island, June 17, 1874, Pages 390-391.
From Heroism of Hannah Duston : together with the Indian Wars of New England, 1874, by Robert Boodey Caverly (1806-1887).  
Historical Address at Contoocook Island, June 17, 1874, Pages 392-393.
Historical Address at Contoocook Island, June 17, 1874, Pages 392-393. 
From Heroism of Hannah Duston : together with the Indian Wars of New England, 1874, by Robert Boodey Caverly (1806-1887).  
Historical Address at Contoocook Island, June 17, 1874, Pages 394-395.
Historical Address at Contoocook Island, June 17, 1874, Pages 394-395.
From Heroism of Hannah Duston : together with the Indian Wars of New England, 1874, by Robert Boodey Caverly (1806-1887).  
Historical Address at Contoocook Island, June 17, 1874, Pages 396-397.
Historical Address at Contoocook Island, June 17, 1874, Pages 396-397.
From Heroism of Hannah Duston : together with the Indian Wars of New England, 1874, by Robert Boodey Caverly (1806-1887).  

Title Pages

Title page, Increase Mather's <I/>A Brief History of the War with the Indians in New England,</I> Boston, 1676.
Title page, Increase Mather's A Brief History of the War with the Indians in New England, Boston, 1676.
Increase Mather's history was one of the first of many colonial post-war texts that made sense of Metacomet's uprising through the Puritan view of history. The slaying of Metacomet [or Metacom] in August 1676 ended the Indian threat to the Massachusetts Bay Colony. Indian resistance to English colonization and expansion continued, however, well into the eighteenth century on the northern and western frontiers. In 1692, Increase Mather’s eldest son, Cotton Mather, would write, "Our Indian wars are not over yet." He went on to write his own history and interpretation of the continuing conflicts between Indians and Puritans and in the process helped define the mythology of the Puritan captivity narrative.  (courtesy of The American Antiquarian Society.)
Title Page, William Hubbard's <I/>Narrative of the Troubles with the Indians</I>, Boston, 1677.
Title Page, William Hubbard's Narrative of the Troubles with the Indians, Boston, 1677.
William Hubbard, Minister of Ipswich  (courtesy of The American Antiquarian Society.)
Title Page, <I/>Decennium luctuosum</I> by Cotton Mather, 1699.
Title Page, Decennium luctuosum by Cotton Mather, 1699. 
Cotton Mather (1663-1728) was the brilliant but arrogant son of Increase Mather. In his study of the Indian wars, he tells the story of the captivity and escape of Hannah Dustin and presents a Puritan view of history that puts the New England Indians on the side of Satan and the Puritans on the side of God. In the ongoing war between the forces of Christ and Satan, all of New England was a battlefield where Indians, witches, Quakers, and Catholics were “enemies of the Lord” and a threat to the Puritan mission. Years after the death of King Philip (Metacom), it was Cotton Mather who made a visit to Plymouth and yanked off the jawbone from the skull of Metacom, on display at Plymouth Fort for over twenty-five years.  (courtesy of the University of Virginia.)
Title Page, Cotton Mather's Sermon, \"Humiliations followed by Deliverences,\" published in 1697. ┬ęThe Huntington Library
Title Page, Cotton Mather's Sermon, "Humiliations followed by Deliverences," published in 1697. ©The Huntington Library
In this sermon, Mather gives the first account of Hannah Duston's captivity and escape from the Abenaki Indians. Mather interviewed Duston after her return to Haverhill, Massachusetts. A revised version later appeared in his Magnalia Christi Americana, 1702. (courtesy of The Huntington Library, San Marino, CA)
Title Page, <I/>The Whole Booke of Psalms,</I>
Cambridge, 1640. ┬ęThe Huntington Library
Title Page, The Whole Booke of Psalms, Cambridge, 1640. ©The Huntington Library
The "Bay Psalm Book," the name generally given to The Whole Booke of Psalms, was the authorized hymnal of the Massachusetts Bay Colony and the first book printed in the English colonies. John Cotton wrote the Preface and Richard Mather, John Eliot, and Thomas Weld did the translation.  (courtesy of The Huntington Library, San Marino, CA)
Title Page, John Eliot's Indian Bible, 1663.
Title Page, John Eliot's Indian Bible, 1663. 
John Eliot was an English missionary who came to Boston in 1631 and preached to the Massachusetts Indians in their native language. He translated the Bible into the local Indian language and helped set up "Praying Towns" around the colony. He became known as "the Apostle to the Indians."  
Title Page, Timothy Dwight's <I/>Travels in New England and New York</I>, 1821.
Title Page, Timothy Dwight's Travels in New England and New York, 1821. 
Timothy Dwight, Travels in New England and New York. S. Converse, Printer. New Haven, 1821.  
Title Page, Cotton Mather's <I/>Magnalia Christi Americana</I>, 1702.  London: Printed for Thomas Parkhurst, at the Bible and three crowns in Cheapside, 1702.
Title Page, Cotton Mather's Magnalia Christi Americana, 1702. London: Printed for Thomas Parkhurst, at the Bible and three crowns in Cheapside, 1702. 
"The Great Works of Christ in America"—Mather's history of colonial Massachussetts is a major work of early New England history through the Puritan imagination. In the General Introduction Mather states: "I WRITE the WONDERS of the CHRISTIAN RELIGION, flying from the depravations of Europe, to the American Strand; and, assisted by the Holy Author of that Religion, I do with all conscience of Truth, required therein by Him, who is the Truth itself, report the wonderful displays of His infinite Power, Wisdom, Goodness, and Faithfulness, wherewith His Divine Providenee hath irradiated an Indian Wilderness."  (courtesy of The Boston Public Library.)
Title Page of the First Book of Cotton Mather's <I/>Magnalia Christi Americana</I>, 1702.
Title Page of the First Book of Cotton Mather's Magnalia Christi Americana, 1702.
Magnalia Christi Americana, 1702, Book One. (courtesy of The Boston Public Library.)
<I/>The Starshine of Mrs. Hannah Dustin</I> by Helen deN. Ford, 1976.
The Starshine of Mrs. Hannah Dustin by Helen deN. Ford, 1976.
"The path of the just is as the shining light that shineth more and more unto the perfect day," Prov. 4:18. Helen Ford's book is a mosaic on Hannah Duston and the Indian raid on Haverhill, Massachusetts, March 1697. 
War and Pestilence, Indian Massacre
War and Pestilence, Indian Massacre
War and Pestilence, Indian Massacre 

Maps

Map of Northeastern Massachusetts and Southern New Hampshire.
Map of Northeastern Massachusetts and Southern New Hampshire.
Map of Hannah Duston's escape journey on the Merrimack River, from Contoocook Island in Penacook, NH to Haverhill, MA.  (courtesy of The Story of Hannah Duston/Dustin of Haverhill, Massachusetts Website )
Map of Southern New England Indian Tribes, c. 1600.
Map of Southern New England Indian Tribes, c. 1600.
Map of Southern New England Indian Tribes, c. 1600. 
Indian Lands and Localities in Essex County Massachusetts
Indian Lands and Localities in Essex County Massachusetts 
Map of Essex County, Massachusetts from Sidney Perley's Indian Deeds of Essex County, 1912, showing Indian place names and tribal areas.  (courtesy of Peabody Essex Museum, Salem, MA)
Contoocook Island and Pennacook Map
Contoocook Island and Pennacook Map 
Contoocook Island and Pennacook Map  

Other

\"Indians Taking Salem Fishing Vessels\"--<I>First Church Records</I>
"Indians Taking Salem Fishing Vessels"--First Church Records
This brief description from the First Church of Salem's records offers some insights into the tensions between local Indians and the early settlers of Salem. (from Essex Institute Historical Collections,vol 2, 1860, p. 104) (courtesy of Peabody Essex Museum, Salem, MA)
Hannah Duston's Conversion Statement to the Haverhill Congregation, 1724. (Haverhill Historical Society Collections)
Hannah Duston's Conversion Statement to the Haverhill Congregation, 1724. (Haverhill Historical Society Collections)
Twenty-seven years after her captivity experience, at 67 years of age, Hannah Duston acknowledges its place in her spiritual development. She states, "I am Thankful for my Captivity, twas the Comfortablest time that ever I had: In my Affliction God made his Word Comfortable to me." (Full Text of the Document)  Haverhill Historical Society Collections
Deposition of Hannah Bradley of Haverhill, 1739.
Deposition of Hannah Bradley of Haverhill, 1739.
In this brief account Hannah Bradley of Haverhill, a captive in the Indian raid of March 1697, offers a corroborative account of the events surrounding the Dustin escape on Contoocook Island. The transcriptionstates that Bradley was shown seven hatchet wounds on the head of the surviving Indian woman who sought refuge in a camp in which Bradley was held. Bradley, herself, survived her long march and captivity. She was later redeemed at Casco Bay (Portland).  Courtesy of the Massachusetts Archives
Mark of Philip, Alias Metacom
Mark of Philip, Alias Metacom 
Autograph of King Philip (courtesy of Peabody Essex Museum, Salem, MA)

Images Related to "The Duston Family"

Paintings
Illustrations from Books and Magazines
Old Postcards and Photographs
Arts and Crafts
Markers and Burial Grounds

 

Paintings

Painting of the Capture of Hannah Duston and Mary Neff.
Painting of the Capture of Hannah Duston and Mary Neff.
The Indian Raid on Haverhill, Massachusetts (originally called Pentucket), occurred in the early morning of March 15, 1697. Apparently, the band of Penacook and, possibly, Nipmuck Indians met little resistance as they began their assault. The Duston house, located on the northwesterly edge of the settlement, was the first to be attacked. The raiding Indians went on to burn several other houses and kill twenty-seven inhabitants of the settlement. Thirteen people, including Hannah Duston and her nurse, the widow Mary Neff, were carried off into New Hampshire. Traveling with the Indians was the boy, Samuel Lenorson, who had been captured in Worcester two years earlier. He befriended the women and stayed with them on Contoocook Island, while the other Haverhill captives travelled onward to Canada. Lenorson’s knowledge of the Merrimack and Contoocook Rivers may have assisted the women in their dangerous escape on March 30, 1697. (courtesy of The Story of Hannah Duston/Dustin of Haverhill, Massachusetts Website )
The Trapper's Bride, by the Baltimore artist, Alfred Jacob Miller (1810-1874).
The Trapper's Bride, by the Baltimore artist, Alfred Jacob Miller (1810-1874). 
The Trapper's Bride, by the Baltimore artist, Alfred Jacob Miller (1810-1874).  
Ash-E-Taa-Na-Quet--A celebrated Chipppeway Chief--James Otto Lewis
Ash-E-Taa-Na-Quet--A celebrated Chipppeway Chief--James Otto Lewis 
Print by James Otto Lewis. From The Aboriginal Portfolio. Philadelphia: J. O. Lewis, 1835-1836. Lithographs by Lehman & Duval. Full original hand coloring. A group of the rarest of Indian prints, from the first published collection of portraits of native North Americans. These portraits were made "on the spot and in the field" by James Otto Lewis, mostly during a series of treaty meetings in the Upper Great Lakes region during the 1820s. (courtesy of Peabody Essex Museum, Salem, MA)
\"Chief of the Blood Indians, War Chief of the Piekann Indians, Koutani Indian\" by Karl Bodmer, (1809-1893). Print from: <I/>From Travels In the Interior of North America in the Years 1832 to 1834.</I> London: Ackermann and Company, 1839-1843. Aquatints.
"Chief of the Blood Indians, War Chief of the Piekann Indians, Koutani Indian" by Karl Bodmer, (1809-1893). Print from: From Travels In the Interior of North America in the Years 1832 to 1834. London: Ackermann and Company, 1839-1843. Aquatints.
Karl Bodmer, (1809-1893), is considered by many to be the greatest 19th-century artist to have produced prints of the American west. Bodmer and his patron, Prince Maximilian of Wied, came to America from Germany in 1832. With Bodmer in charge of the pictorial documentary, Prince Maximilian, an experienced and respected traveler and naturalist, set out to put together as complete a study as possible of the western territories of the United States. The result was the publication of Maximilian's journals in successive German, French, and English editions between 1839 and 1843, and with it, a picture atlas of eighty-one aquatint plates after paintings by Bodmer. This picture volume is now regarded as one of the most comprehensive and memorable visual surveys of the western territories ever made. The prints provide a rare and privileged glimpse into 19th-century America. (courtesy of Peabody Essex Museum, Salem, MA)
\"The War Dance, By The Ojibeway Indians\"
George Catlin
"The War Dance, By The Ojibeway Indians" George Catlin
From James C. Prichard’s The Natural History of Man. London: Hippolyte Balliere, [1844]. Octavo (9 1/2" x 5 1/2" full sheet). Etchings. Original hand color. Courtesy of the The Philadelphia Print Shop: http://www.philaprintshop.com/ (courtesy of Peabody Essex Museum, Salem, MA)
\"Not-een-a-akm. The Strong Wind\"
George Catlin
"Not-een-a-akm. The Strong Wind" George Catlin
Portrait by George Catlin. From James C. Prichard’s The Natural History of Man. London: Hippolyte Balliere, [1844]. Octavo (9 1/2" x 5 1/2" full sheet). Etchings. Courtesy of the The Philadelphia Print Shop: http://www.philaprintshop.com/.  (courtesy of Peabody Essex Museum, Salem, MA)
An Old Nayas Indian, His Granddaughter, and a Boy, 1855, 1869 by George Catlin.
An Old Nayas Indian, His Granddaughter, and a Boy, 1855, 1869 by George Catlin.
George Catlin (American Painter, 1796-1872) traveled the North American continent from 1830-1838 to chronicle the people, customs and traditions of Native American tribes. His life's ambition was to record Native American culture before it disappeared. His travels resulted in over 600 portraits and scenes of rituals, hunting and daily life of over fifty North American tribes.  (courtesy of the National Gallery of Art, Washington D.C.)
A Pawnee Warrior Sacrificing His Favorite Horse, 1861, 1869, by George Catlin.
A Pawnee Warrior Sacrificing His Favorite Horse, 1861, 1869, by George Catlin.
George Catlin (American Painter, 1796-1872) traveled the North American continent from 1830-1838 to chronicle the people, customs and traditions of Native American tribes. His life's ambition was to record Native American culture before it disappeared. His travels resulted in over 600 portraits and scenes of rituals, hunting and daily life of over fifty North American tribes.  (courtesy of the National Gallery of Art, Washington D.C.)
A Sioux War Party, 1861, 1869 by George Catlin.
A Sioux War Party, 1861, 1869 by George Catlin.
George Catlin (American Painter, 1796-1872) traveled the North American continent from 1830-1838 to chronicle the people, customs and traditions of Native American tribes. His life's ambition was to record Native American culture before it disappeared. His travels resulted in over 600 portraits and scenes of rituals, hunting and daily life of over fifty North American tribes. (courtesy of the National Gallery of Art, Washington D.C.)
Boy Chief, Ojibbeway, 1843, by George Catlin.
Boy Chief, Ojibbeway, 1843, by George Catlin.
George Catlin (American Painter, 1796-1872) traveled the North American continent from 1830-1838 to chronicle the people, customs and traditions of Native American tribes. His life's ambition was to record Native American culture before it disappeared. His travels resulted in over 600 portraits and scenes of rituals, hunting and daily life of over fifty North American tribes.  (courtesy of the National Gallery of Art, Washington D.C.)
Buffalo Bull's Back Fat--Head Chief, Blood Tribe by George Catlin.
Buffalo Bull's Back Fat--Head Chief, Blood Tribe by George Catlin.
George Catlin (American Painter, 1796-1872) traveled the North American continent from 1830-1838 to chronicle the people, customs and traditions of Native American tribes. His life's ambition was to record Native American culture before it disappeared. His travels resulted in over 600 portraits and scenes of rituals, hunting and daily life of over fifty North American tribes.  (courtesy of the National Gallery of Art, Washington D.C.)
Corn--Miniconjou Warrior by George Catlin.
Corn--Miniconjou Warrior by George Catlin.
George Catlin (American Painter, 1796-1872) traveled the North American continent from 1830-1838 to chronicle the people, customs and traditions of Native American tribes. His life's ambition was to record Native American culture before it disappeared. His travels resulted in over 600 portraits and scenes of rituals, hunting and daily life of over fifty North American tribes.  (courtesy of the National Gallery of Art, Washington D.C.)
Dance to the Berdache - Saukie, 1861/1869
Dance to the Berdache - Saukie, 1861/1869
George Catlin (American Painter, 1796-1872) traveled the North American continent from 1830-1838 to chronicle the people, customs and traditions of Native American tribes. His life's ambition was to record Native American culture before it disappeared. His travels resulted in over 600 portraits and scenes of rituals, hunting and daily life of over fifty North American tribes.  (courtesy of the National Gallery of Art, Washington D.C.)
Encampment of Pawnee Indians at Sunset, 1861, 1869, by George Catlin.
Encampment of Pawnee Indians at Sunset, 1861, 1869, by George Catlin.
George Catlin (American Painter, 1796-1872) traveled the North American continent from 1830-1838 to chronicle the people, customs and traditions of Native American tribes. His life's ambition was to record Native American culture before it disappeared. His travels resulted in over 600 portraits and scenes of rituals, hunting and daily life of over fifty North American tribes.  (courtesy of the National Gallery of Art, Washington D.C.)
Osceola, by George Catlin
Osceola, by George Catlin
George Catlin (American Painter, 1796-1872) traveled the North American continent from 1830-1838 to chronicle the people, customs and traditions of Native American tribes. His life's ambition was to record Native American culture before it disappeared. His travels resulted in over 600 portraits and scenes of rituals, hunting and daily life of over fifty North American tribes.  (courtesy of the National Gallery of Art, Washington D.C.)
See-non-ty-a, Anlowa Medicine Man, 1844, 1845, by George Catlin.
See-non-ty-a, Anlowa Medicine Man, 1844, 1845, by George Catlin.
George Catlin (American Painter, 1796-1872) traveled the North American continent from 1830-1838 to chronicle the people, customs and traditions of Native American tribes. His life's ambition was to record Native American culture before it disappeared. His travels resulted in over 600 portraits and scenes of rituals, hunting and daily life of over fifty North American tribes.  (courtesy of the National Gallery of Art, Washington D.C.)
The Female Eagle--Shawano, 1830, by George Catlin.
The Female Eagle--Shawano, 1830, by George Catlin.
George Catlin (American Painter, 1796-1872) traveled the North American continent from 1830-1838 to chronicle the people, customs and traditions of Native American tribes. His life's ambition was to record Native American culture before it disappeared. His travels resulted in over 600 portraits and scenes of rituals, hunting and daily life of over fifty North American tribes.  (courtesy of the National Gallery of Art, Washington D.C.)
The White Cloud, Head Chief of the Iowas, 1844, 1845, by George Catlin.
The White Cloud, Head Chief of the Iowas, 1844, 1845, by George Catlin. 
George Catlin (American Painter, 1796-1872) traveled the North American continent from 1830-1838 to chronicle the people, customs and traditions of Native American tribes. His life's ambition was to record Native American culture before it disappeared. His travels resulted in over 600 portraits and scenes of rituals, hunting and daily life of over fifty North American tribes.  (courtesy of the National Gallery of Art, Washington D.C.)

Illustrations from Books and Magazines

\"The Escape of the Duston Family,\" illustration from \"The Duston Family\" by Nathaniel Hawthorne.
"The Escape of the Duston Family," illustration from "The Duston Family" by Nathaniel Hawthorne.
From The American Magazine of Useful and Entertaining Knowledge vol. II, published by the Boston Bewick Company, 1836 (courtesy of Peabody Essex Museum, Salem, MA)
Hannah Duston's Escape from Contoocook Island, New Hampshire, 1697.
Hannah Duston's Escape from Contoocook Island, New Hampshire, 1697.
Hannah Duston's Escape from Contoocook Island, New Hampshire (now known as Dustin Island) on the night of March 29th-30th, 1697. The two-acre island is at the junction of the Merrimack and Contoocook Rivers north of Concord. Samuel Leonardson, the fourteen-year-old English boy, is also seen in the illustration assisting in the killing of the Indians. (courtesy of Peabody Essex Museum, Salem, MA)
The Captive Maidens
The Captive Maidens
Illustration from A Popular History of the United States by William Cullen Bryant. New York, Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1896.  (courtesy of The Boston Public Library.)
The Massacre of Ann Hutchinson
The Massacre of Ann Hutchinson
Illustration from A Popular History of the United States by William Cullen Bryant. New York, Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1896.  (courtesy of The Boston Public Library.)
Indian Attack on an Outlying Plantation
Indian Attack on an Outlying Plantation
Illustration from A Popular History of the United States by William Cullen Bryant. New York, Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1896.  (courtesy of The Boston Public Library.)
Boone And Calloway Rescued
Boone And Calloway Rescued 
A line-cut illustration from First white man of the West, or, The life and exploits of Col. Dan'l Boone, the first settler of Kentucky; interspersed with incidents in the early annals of the country by Timothy Flint, 1854, depicting a rescue of pioneers from the Indians.  (courtesy of University of Kentucky Library.)
Encounter With Indians
Encounter With Indians 
A line-cut illustration from First white man of the West, or, The life and exploits of Col. Dan'l Boone, the first settler of Kentucky; interspersed with incidents in the early annals of the country by Timothy Flint, 1854. (courtesy of University of Kentucky Library.)
Execution Of A Prisoner
Execution Of A Prisoner 
In First white man of the West, or, The life and exploits of Col. Dan'l Boone, the first settler of Kentucky; interspersed with incidents in the early annals of the country,Timothy Flint relates the story of Boone’s captivity among the Shawnese Indians and the "mercy killing" of a brave enemy warrior from a western tribe.  (courtesy of University of Kentucky Library.)
Illustration from Mary Rowlandson's Captivity Narrative, 1770 Edition.
Illustration from Mary Rowlandson's Captivity Narrative, 1770 Edition.
Frontispiece of Mary Rowlandson's Captivity Narrative, 1770 Edition. (courtesy of The American Antiquarian Society.)
\"Crossing to Contoocook Island\"
"Crossing to Contoocook Island"
From Heroism of Hannah Duston : together with the Indian Wars of New England, 1874, by Robert Boodey Caverly (1806-1887).  
\"Dustin, Neff, and Leonardson\"
"Dustin, Neff, and Leonardson"
From Heroism of Hannah Duston : together with the Indian Wars of New England, 1874, by Robert Boodey Caverly (1806-1887).  
\"Chocorua Wept\"
"Chocorua Wept" 
From Heroism of Hannah Duston : together with the Indian Wars of New England, 1874, by Robert Boodey Caverly (1806-1887).  
\"Death of King Philip\"
"Death of King Philip" 
From Heroism of Hannah Duston : together with the Indian Wars of New England, 1874, by Robert Boodey Caverly (1806-1887).  
\"The Marsh Garrison House\"
"The Marsh Garrison House" 
From Heroism of Hannah Duston : together with the Indian Wars of New England, 1874, by Robert Boodey Caverly (1806-1887).  
Robert Boodey Caverly
Robert Boodey Caverly
From Heroism of Hannah Duston : together with the Indian Wars of New England, 1874, by Robert Boodey Caverly (1806-1887).  
Hannah Duston Statue, Contoocook Island, \"First Draft\"
Hannah Duston Statue, Contoocook Island, "First Draft" 
From Heroism of Hannah Duston : together with the Indian Wars of New England, 1874, by Robert Boodey Caverly (1806-1887).  
Historical Address at Contoocook Island, June 17, 1874, Pages 388-389.
Historical Address at Contoocook Island, June 17, 1874, Pages 388-389.
From Heroism of Hannah Duston : together with the Indian Wars of New England, 1874, by Robert Boodey Caverly (1806-1887).  
Historical Address at Contoocook Island, June 17, 1874, Pages 390-391.
Historical Address at Contoocook Island, June 17, 1874, Pages 390-391.
From Heroism of Hannah Duston : together with the Indian Wars of New England, 1874, by Robert Boodey Caverly (1806-1887).  
Historical Address at Contoocook Island, June 17, 1874, Pages 392-393.
Historical Address at Contoocook Island, June 17, 1874, Pages 392-393. 
From Heroism of Hannah Duston : together with the Indian Wars of New England, 1874, by Robert Boodey Caverly (1806-1887).  
Historical Address at Contoocook Island, June 17, 1874, Pages 394-395.
Historical Address at Contoocook Island, June 17, 1874, Pages 394-395.
From Heroism of Hannah Duston : together with the Indian Wars of New England, 1874, by Robert Boodey Caverly (1806-1887).  
Historical Address at Contoocook Island, June 17, 1874, Pages 396-397.
Historical Address at Contoocook Island, June 17, 1874, Pages 396-397.
From Heroism of Hannah Duston : together with the Indian Wars of New England, 1874, by Robert Boodey Caverly (1806-1887).  
<I/>The Starshine of Mrs. Hannah Dustin</I> by Helen deN. Ford, 1976.
The Starshine of Mrs. Hannah Dustin by Helen deN. Ford, 1976.
"The path of the just is as the shining light that shineth more and more unto the perfect day," Prov. 4:18. Helen Ford's book is a mosaic on Hannah Duston and the Indian raid on Haverhill, Massachusetts, March 1697. 
Indian Village (From Hariot's \"Relation\")
Indian Village (From Hariot's "Relation")
Illustration from A Popular History of the United States by William Cullen Bryant. New York, Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1896.  (courtesy of The Boston Public Library.)

 

Title Page of <i>Captivity Narrative of Hannah Duston,</i>1987
Title Page of Captivity Narrative of Hannah Duston,1987 
Woodblock prints by Richard Bosman and introduction by Glenn Todd (courtesy of Arion Press, San Francisco, and artist Richard Bosman)
Frontispiece woodblock print by Richard Bosman
Frontispiece woodblock print by Richard Bosman
From from Captivity Narrative of Hannah Duston,1987  (courtesy of Arion Press, San Francisco, and artist Richard Bosman)
Beginning of Hannah Duston story by Nathaniel Hawthorne (p. 31); woodblock print illustrations by Richard Bosman
Beginning of Hannah Duston story by Nathaniel Hawthorne (p. 31); woodblock print illustrations by Richard Bosman
From from Captivity Narrative of Hannah Duston,1987  (courtesy of Arion Press, San Francisco, and artist Richard Bosman)
\"Carcasses on the Ground\" (p. 32); woodblock print by Richard Bosman
"Carcasses on the Ground" (p. 32); woodblock print by Richard Bosman
From from Captivity Narrative of Hannah Duston,1987  (courtesy of Arion Press, San Francisco, and artist Richard Bosman)
\"For Birds to Feed Upon\" (p. 33); woodblock print by Richard Bosman
"For Birds to Feed Upon" (p. 33); woodblock print by Richard Bosman
From from Captivity Narrative of Hannah Duston,1987  (courtesy of Arion Press, San Francisco, and artist Richard Bosman)
\"Through the Wilderness\" (p. 34); woodblock print by Richard Bosman
"Through the Wilderness" (p. 34); woodblock print by Richard Bosman
From from Captivity Narrative of Hannah Duston,1987  (courtesy of Arion Press, San Francisco, and artist Richard Bosman)
\"An Uncertain March\"(p. 35); woodblock print by Richard Bosman
"An Uncertain March"(p. 35); woodblock print by Richard Bosman
From from Captivity Narrative of Hannah Duston,1987  (courtesy of Arion Press, San Francisco, and artist Richard Bosman)
\"Pouring Out Her Soul\"(p. 36); woodblock print by Richard Bosman
"Pouring Out Her Soul"(p. 36); woodblock print by Richard Bosman
From from Captivity Narrative of Hannah Duston,1987  (courtesy of Arion Press, San Francisco, and artist Richard Bosman)
\"Prayers Thrice Every Day\" (p. 37); woodblock print by Richard Bosman
"Prayers Thrice Every Day" (p. 37); woodblock print by Richard Bosman
From from Captivity Narrative of Hannah Duston,1987  (courtesy of Arion Press, San Francisco, and artist Richard Bosman)
\"Wigwams of Her Captors\" (p. 38); woodblock print by Richard Bosman
"Wigwams of Her Captors" (p. 38); woodblock print by Richard Bosman
From from Captivity Narrative of Hannah Duston,1987  (courtesy of Arion Press, San Francisco, and artist Richard Bosman)
\"Around a Fire\" (p. 39); woodblock print by Richard Bosman
"Around a Fire" (p. 39); woodblock print by Richard Bosman
From from Captivity Narrative of Hannah Duston,1987  (courtesy of Arion Press, San Francisco, and artist Richard Bosman)
\"A Deep, Dead Slumber\" (p. 40); woodblock print by Richard Bosman
"A Deep, Dead Slumber" (p. 40); woodblock print by Richard Bosman
From from Captivity Narrative of Hannah Duston,1987  (courtesy of Arion Press, San Francisco, and artist Richard Bosman)
\"Killed In Their Sleep\" (p. 41);woodblock print by Richard Bosman
"Killed In Their Sleep" (p. 41);woodblock print by Richard Bosman
From from Captivity Narrative of Hannah Duston,1987  (courtesy of Arion Press, San Francisco, and artist Richard Bosman)
\"Suddenly Waked and Skuttled Away\" (p. 42); woodblock print by Richard Bosman
"Suddenly Waked and Skuttled Away" (p. 42); woodblock print by Richard Bosman
From from Captivity Narrative of Hannah Duston,1987  (courtesy of Arion Press, San Francisco, and artist Richard Bosman)
\"Escaped, Dreadfully Wounded\" (p. 43);woodblock print by Richard Bosman
"Escaped, Dreadfully Wounded" (p. 43);woodblock print by Richard Bosman
From from Captivity Narrative of Hannah Duston,1987  (courtesy of Arion Press, San Francisco, and artist Richard Bosman)
\"Proofs Of What They Had Done\" (p. 44); woodblock print by Richard Bosman
"Proofs Of What They Had Done" (p. 44); woodblock print by Richard Bosman
From from Captivity Narrative of Hannah Duston,1987  (courtesy of Arion Press, San Francisco, and artist Richard Bosman)
\"Long Black Hair\" (p. 45); woodblock print by Richard Bosman
"Long Black Hair" (p. 45); woodblock print by Richard Bosman
From from Captivity Narrative of Hannah Duston,1987  (courtesy of Arion Press, San Francisco, and artist Richard Bosman)

Old Postcards and Photographs

The Hannah Duston Memorial, Haverhill, Massachusetts.
The Hannah Duston Memorial, Haverhill, Massachusetts.
Duston Memorial, Haverhill (courtesy of The Story of Hannah Duston/Dustin of Haverhill, Massachusetts website)
Old Postcard of Duston Memorial, Haverhill, Massachusetts.
Old Postcard of Duston Memorial, Haverhill, Massachusetts.
Hannah Duston Memorial, Haverhill, Massachusetts. (courtesy of The Story of Hannah Duston/Dustin of Haverhill, Massachusetts Website )
Hannah Duston Memorial, Haverhill, Massachusetts
Hannah Duston Memorial, Haverhill, Massachusetts
Hannah Duston Memorial, Haverhill, Massachusetts (courtesy of The Story of Hannah Duston/Dustin of Haverhill, Massachusetts Website )
Old Postcard of the Duston Memorial, Haverhill, Massachusetts.
Old Postcard of the Duston Memorial, Haverhill, Massachusetts. 
Hannah Duston Memorial, Haverhill, Massachusetts.  (courtesy of The Story of Hannah Duston/Dustin of Haverhill, Massachusetts Website )
Old Postcard of the Hannah Duston Memorial, Penacook, NH.
Old Postcard of the Hannah Duston Memorial, Penacook, NH.
Hannah Duston Memorial, Contoocook Island, New Hampshire. (courtesy of The Story of Hannah Duston/Dustin of Haverhill, Massachusetts Website )
Old Postcard of the Duston Memorial, Contoocook Island, Penacook, NH.
Old Postcard of the Duston Memorial, Contoocook Island, Penacook, NH.
Hannah Duston Memorial, Contoocook Island, New Hampshire. (courtesy of Peabody Essex Museum, Salem, MA)
Old Postcard of the Jonathan Duston House Site, Monument Street, Haverhill, MA.
Old Postcard of the Jonathan Duston House Site, Monument Street, Haverhill, MA. 
The Duston boulder (location of the home of Jonathan Duston with whom Hannah lived in her final years. Local history tells us that Haverhill's immense Duston boulder marks the site of Jonathan Duston's home, where Mrs. Duston lived her final years with a son. Haverhill public library records say it took 30 horses with 14 drivers to haul it to the present location. Its weight is estimated at from 30 to 60 tons. Hannah Duston died at this location in 1736.  (courtesy of The Story of Hannah Duston/Dustin of Haverhill, Massachusetts Website )
Hannah Duston Monument, Haverhill, Massachusetts
Hannah Duston Monument, Haverhill, Massachusetts 
The monument stands on the site of the Second Church, of which Hannah Duston became a member in 1724.  (Photography by Joseph R. Modugno)
Hannah Duston Monument, Haverhill, Massachusetts
Hannah Duston Monument, Haverhill, Massachusetts 
The Hannah Duston Monument was the first statue erected in the United States to honor a woman.  (Photography by Joseph R. Modugno)
Hannah Duston Monument, Haverhill, Massachusetts.
Hannah Duston Monument, Haverhill, Massachusetts.
The original small axe or hatchet held here by Hannah Duston can be found today in the Haverhill Historical Society. The Duston hatchet is not a tomahawk. It is usually called a biscayan or biscayenne, a common trade item of the late seventeenth-century New England frontier. (Photography by Joseph R. Modugno)
Close-up of the Hannah Duston Monument, Haverhill, Massachusetts.
Close-up of the Hannah Duston Monument, Haverhill, Massachusetts.
Hannah Duston Monument (Photography by Joseph R. Modugno)
One of the four plaques on the base of the Hannah Duston Monument, Haverhill, Massachusetts.
One of the four plaques on the base of the Hannah Duston Monument, Haverhill, Massachusetts. 
The capture of Hannah Duston and Mary Neff (Photography by Joseph R. Modugno)
One of the four plaques on the base of the Hannah Duston Monument, Haverhill, Massachusetts.
One of the four plaques on the base of the Hannah Duston Monument, Haverhill, Massachusetts. 
Hannah Duston's husband defending the Duston children  (Photography by Joseph R. Modugno)
One of the four plaques on the base of the Hannah Duston Monument, Haverhill, Massachusetts.
One of the four plaques on the base of the Hannah Duston Monument, Haverhill, Massachusetts. 
The slaying of the Abenaki Indians  (Photography by Joseph R. Modugno)
Detail of one of the four plaques on the base of the Hannah Duston Monument, Haverhill, Massachusetts.
Detail of one of the four plaques on the base of the Hannah Duston Monument, Haverhill, Massachusetts. 
Sleeping Abenaki Indians on the Duston Monument, Haverhill, Massachusetts. Hannah and two other English captives killed ten of the twelve sleeping Indians on an island camp in the Merrimack River in March or April of 1697.  (Photography by Joseph R. Modugno)
One of the four plaques on the base of the Hannah Duston Monument, Haverhill, Massachusetts.
One of the four plaques on the base of the Hannah Duston Monument, Haverhill, Massachusetts. 
The escape of Hannah Duston, Mary Neff, and Samuel Lenorson (Lennardson) down the Merrimack River  (Photography by Joseph R. Modugno)
Hannah Duston Monument, Contoocook Island, Penacook, New Hampshire.
Hannah Duston Monument, Contoocook Island, Penacook, New Hampshire.
The 35 foot granite monument and statue of Hannah Duston was placed at the site of the escape in 1874. The front, or Westerly side of the monument, is inscribd with the following: "Heroum Gesta Fides-Justitia. Hannah Duston Mary Neff, Samuel Leonardson March 30, 1697, Midnight. (Photography by Joseph R. Modugno)
The 35 foot granite monument and statue of Hannah Duston, Contoocook Island, Penacook, New Hampshire.
The 35 foot granite monument and statue of Hannah Duston, Contoocook Island, Penacook, New Hampshire. 
The monument was erected in 1874 on the site of the escape. On the easterly side of the monument, facing the river, the following comment is inscribed: March 15 1697 30. The War-Whoops-Tomahawks-Fagot and Infanticides were at Haverhill, the ashes of the camp-fires at night and ten of the tribe are here. (Photography by Joseph R. Modugno)
Hannah Duston Monument, Contoocook Island, Penacook, New Hampshire.
Hannah Duston Monument, Contoocook Island, Penacook, New Hampshire.
Granite statue of Hannah Duston holding a hatchet and ten Indian scalps. (Photography by Joseph R. Modugno)
A View of the Hannah Duston Monument, Contoocook Island, Penacook, New Hampshire
A View of the Hannah Duston Monument, Contoocook Island, Penacook, New Hampshire
Granite statue of Hannah Duston. (Photography by Joseph R. Modugno)
A View of the Hannah Duston Monument, Contoocook Island, Penacook, New Hampshire.
A View of the Hannah Duston Monument, Contoocook Island, Penacook, New Hampshire.
Granite statue of Hannah Duston. (Photography by Joseph R. Modugno)
A View of the Hannah Duston Monument, Contoocook Island, Penacook, New Hampshire.
A View of the Hannah Duston Monument, Contoocook Island, Penacook, New Hampshire.
Granite statue of Hannah Duston  (Photography by Joseph R. Modugno)
A View of the Merrimack River Along Contoocook Island, Penacook, NH.
A View of the Merrimack River Along Contoocook Island, Penacook, NH.
Contoocook Island, also known as Dustin and Sugar Ball Island, is at the junction of the Merrimack and Contoocook Rivers near Concord, NH. It is approximately two acres, level, and protected as by a moat. The Indians used it as a place of encampment, refuge, and council. It was also a stopover on the several Indian trade routes of the area. It was here that Hannah Duston and her companions killed ten Indians and escaped in a birch bark canoe in the early hours of March 31, 1697. (Photography by Joseph R. Modugno)
A View of the Merrimack River, looking south  from Contoocook Island, Penacook, NH.
A View of the Merrimack River, looking south from Contoocook Island, Penacook, NH.
Contoocook Island is approximately 40 miles in a straight line from Haverhill, but the captives of the March 15, 1697 Indian raid covered over a hundred miles as they wound their way through the late-winter wilderness of southern and central New Hampshire. One tradition holds that Hannah Duston began her journey with only one shoe. (Photography by Joseph R. Modugno)
A View of the Merrimack River From Contoocook Island, Penacook, NH
A View of the Merrimack River From Contoocook Island, Penacook, NH
The Merrimack River, from Contoocook Island. (Photography by Joseph R. Modugno)
Cardinal Flowers (Lobelia cardinalis) growing along the Merrimack River at the edge of Contoocook Island, Penacook, NH.
Cardinal Flowers (Lobelia cardinalis) growing along the Merrimack River at the edge of Contoocook Island, Penacook, NH.
This native wildflower is quite uncommon, but may be found along streams and ponds in the eastern United States. Cardinal flowers time their blooms with the late-summer and fall migration of hummingbirds, who are attracted to the brilliant red flowers. Tradition holds that the scarlet-red flower was named for the red robes worn by cardinals in the Catholic Church. American Indians used infusions and decoctions of cardinal flower to treat all sorts of real and imagined afflictions.  (Photography by Joseph R. Modugno)
Close up of Cardinal Flowers (Lobelia cardinalis) growing on Contoocook Island.
Close up of Cardinal Flowers (Lobelia cardinalis) growing on Contoocook Island. 
American Indians used this and other Lobelias to treat worms, stomach problems and syphilis. The root was part of a Native American love potion and the powder of the entire plant may have been used as sort of a magic power to dispel storms and was used in ceremonies. One legend claims that touching the root of this plant will bring love to the lives of elderly women. The plant, however, contains poisonous alkaloids and ingestion has caused illness and even deaths in humans. (Photography by Joseph R. Modugno)

Arts and Crafts

The 1973 collectible \"Hannah Duston\" Jim Beam bottle: \"4/5 quart 180 month old 86 proof. Beam Kentucky Straight Bourbon Whiskey.\"
The 1973 collectible "Hannah Duston" Jim Beam bottle: "4/5 quart 180 month old 86 proof. Beam Kentucky Straight Bourbon Whiskey." 
"Hannah Duston" Jim Beam bottle. The bottle is described as, "A beautiful, Regal China creation --handcrafted." 1973 Jim Beam. 
King Philip of Mount Hope by Paul Revere
King Philip of Mount Hope by Paul Revere 
Metacom (or Metacomet), whom the English called King Philip, was the son of Massasoit and the Wampanoag sachem who led the uprising against the English between 1675-76. "King Philip's War," as the English named it, was one of the most economically and psychologically devastating events in New England history. Massacres and property destruction raged all over New England. It ended with Metacom shot to death in a Rhode Island swamp and the breakup of the Indian nations of eastern Massachusetts. Metacom's body was quartered and the parts hung from trees. His decapitated head was staked on a pole in Plymouth Colony, where it remained on view for more than twenty-five years. In his History of the War, Increase Mather commented with satisfaction that Philip was “hewed in pieces before the Lord.”  (courtesy of The American Antiquarian Society.)
<I/>The Last of the Wampanoags</I> by G.I. Brown.  Engraved by G.E. Ellis, c. 1850.
The Last of the Wampanoags by G.I. Brown. Engraved by G.E. Ellis, c. 1850. 
The Last of the Wampanoags by G.I. Brown. Engraved by G.E. Ellis, c. 1850.  (courtesy of Harvard College Library)
Cotton Mather
Cotton Mather
Portrait of Cotton Mather from Perley's History of Salem, Massachusetts. (courtesy of Peabody Essex Museum, Salem, MA)
Portrait of Cotton Mather (1663-1723)
Portrait of Cotton Mather (1663-1723)
Cotton Mather was one of Puritan New England's most influential ministers and leaders. He was famous for his writings, histories such as Magnalia Christi Americana and those that helped stir up support for the Salem Witchcraft Trials of 1692. He also promoted learning and early scientific knowledge in New England. He worked for acceptance of the smallpox vaccine and wrote a treatise on medicine called The Angel of Bethesda.  (courtesy of Peabody Essex Museum, Salem, MA)
Samuel G. Goodrich (1793-1860)
Brady Carte de Visite
Samuel G. Goodrich (1793-1860) Brady Carte de Visite 
The back of the image reads: "Published by E. Anthony, 501 Broadway, New York. From photographic negative, from Brady's National Portrait Gallery." The Portrait Gallery has put online an image of the daguerreotype from which this carte was made.  Image courtesy of Pat Pflieger, merrycoz.org
Samuel G. Goodrich (1793-1860)
Samuel G. Goodrich (1793-1860) 
This medal was reproduced for the frontispiece of the first volume of Goodrich's Recollections of a Lifetime (1857). A photo of the original medal appeared on page 401 of Emily Goodrich Smith's "'Peter Parley'--As Known to His Daughter." The photo is less detailed than is the engraving.  Image courtesy of Pat Pflieger, merrycoz.org
Iroquois Ball Head Club, 19th century
Iroquois Ball Head Club, 19th century
The “GA-JE-WA” was a heavy weapon, usually made of ironwood, with a large ball of knot at the head. It was usually about two feet in length, and the base five or six inches in diameter. In close combat it would prove a formidable weapon. 
Iroquois Ball-mouth War club, 19th Century.
Iroquois Ball-mouth War club, 19th Century.
The club is painted red on one side, black on the other. There is sheet brass decoration on the sides of ball and scalloped carving on the handle edge behind ball. Two small leather bags hang from the top of the club, a leather thong through the base. The “GA-JE-WA” was a heavy weapon, usually made of ironwood, with a large ball of knot at the head. It was generally about two feet in length, and the base five or six inches in diameter. In close combat it would prove a formidable weapon.  Courtesy of The New York State Museum: The University Of the State of New York
Iroquois Deer-Antler War Club, 19th Century.
Iroquois Deer-Antler War Club, 19th Century.
This type of war club was commonly used. In the lower edge, a sharp-pointed deer's antler, about four inches in length, was inserted to create a dangerous weapon that would inflict a deep wound in close combat.  Courtesy of The New York State Museum: The University Of the State of New York
Pouch with Tassels
Pouch with Tassels 
Deerskin Pouch with Fur, Porcupine Quills, and Metal Chimes. Pawtucket Indian Artist. 17th Century.  (courtesy of Peabody Essex Museum, Salem, MA)
Pouch with Tassels
Pouch with Tassels
Deerskin Pouch with Fur, Porcupine Quills, and Metal Chimes. Pawtucket Indian Artist. 17th Century.  (courtesy of Peabody Essex Museum, Salem, MA)
Black Stone Bear
Black Stone Bear
Black Stone Bear. Igneous Rock. Pawtucket Indian Artist. Ca. 16th Century (courtesy of Peabody Essex Museum, Salem, MA)
Burden Strap, Iroquois Artist, 18th Century
Burden Strap, Iroquois Artist, 18th Century
This strap was used to carry bundles while walking. The central portion would have been worn across the forehead. It is made of leather, dyed moose hair, and glass beads.  (courtesy of Peabody Essex Museum, Salem, MA)
An 18 Foot Reproduction Birch Bark Canoe (Henri Vaillancourt, Greenville, NH)
An 18 Foot Reproduction Birch Bark Canoe (Henri Vaillancourt, Greenville, NH)
This birch bark canoe is made in the style of the Indian fur traders of the Northeast.  (courtesy of Henri Vaillancourt.)
Abenaki Style Birch Bark Canoe.
Abenaki Style Birch Bark Canoe. 
This Abenaki style birch bark canoe was made by Henri Vaillancourt, Greenville, NH, using traditonal materials and methods. A similar example is in the Peabody Essex Museum collection.  (courtesy of Henri Vaillancourt.)

Markers and Burial Grounds

Samuel Lenorson Housesite Marker, Worcester, Massachusetts
Samuel Lenorson Housesite Marker, Worcester, Massachusetts
Tablet on Davis Tower, Lake Park, Quinsigamond State Park, Worcester, MA. It was placed by the Worcester Society of Antiquities in 1910 but stolen in the 1960s. The tablet reads: "On this site stood the home of Samuel Lenorson. This tablet is erected in memory of his son Samuel who at twelve years of age was stolen by the Indians in 1695. His master joined in the attack on Haverhill in 1697, assisting in the capture of Mrs. Hannah Dustin and Mrs. Neff. On the march toward Canada while encamped on an island near Concord, N. H., these captives, led by Mrs. Dustin, killed ten of the Indians and thus regaining their liberty returned to their homes."  
Gravestone of Capt. Thomas Lake, 1676, Copp's Hill Burial Ground, Boston.
Gravestone of Capt. Thomas Lake, 1676, Copp's Hill Burial Ground, Boston.
Capt. Thomas Lake, who was "perfidiously slain by ye Indians at Kennibeck, August ye 14, 1676."  (Photography by Joseph R. Modugno)
Gravestone for French and Indian War Captive Lydia Harwood, Northfield, MA.
Gravestone for French and Indian War Captive Lydia Harwood, Northfield, MA. 
Lydia Harwood Her First Husband Asahel Stebbens was killed and she taken prisoner by the Indians Aug. 27, 1757 at No 4 and Carried to Canada. Saved from torture at the stake by her heroism and faith. She returned from captivity and in 1759 married Capt. Samuel Merriem. She died his widow Feb. 2, 1808 Aged 76. (No 4 was a fort at Charleston, NH. The stone was erected in 1874 by descendants.)  Photography and Transcription Courtesy of Tom and Brenda Malloy of The Association for Gravestone Studies.
Gravestone for King George's War Captive Samuel Allen, Deerfield, MA.
Gravestone for King George's War Captive Samuel Allen, Deerfield, MA.
In Memory of Samuel Allen who fell by the Indian Savages April ye 25th 1746 Valiantly Defending his Own Life and Children in ye 45th year of his age.  Photography and Transcription Courtesy of Tom and Brenda Malloy of The Association for Gravestone Studies.
Gravestone for Captain Edward Hutchinson of Marlborough, MA, Killed during King Philip's War.
Gravestone for Captain Edward Hutchinson of Marlborough, MA, Killed during King Philip's War. 
Captain Edward Hutchinson Aged 62 years Was shot by the treacherous Indians Aug. 2, 1675 Died 19 August 1675. Erected by the Gen. Jos. Badger Chapter Of the Daughters of the American Revolution Oct. 27,1921. (He was the son of Anne Hutchinson, who was expelled from Massachusetts Bay Colony for sedition in 1638 and later died in an Indian attack in Long Island.)  Photography and Transcription Courtesy of Tom and Brenda Malloy of The Association for Gravestone Studies.
Gravestone for an Indian Captive, Deerfield, MA
Gravestone for an Indian Captive, Deerfield, MA
In memory of Judah Wright who died August 30th, 1747 in the 72nd Year of his age. He was one of the unfortunate who was captured by the Indians Feb. 29th 1703-04.  Photography and Transcription Courtesy of Tom and Brenda Malloy of The Association for Gravestone Studies.
Gravestone for an Indian Captive, Deerfield, MA
Gravestone for an Indian Captive, Deerfield, MA
Here lies the Body of Mrs. Eunice Williams the Virtuous and desirable consort of the Revd. John Williams and daughter to ye Revd. Mr. Eleazer and Mrs. Esther Mather of Northhampton. She was born Aug. 2, 1664 and fell by the Barberous Enemy March 1, 1703-04. (She was captured during the Deerfield raid and then killed when she couldn’t keep up with the other captives. The account was later published by her husband.)  Photography and Transcription Courtesy of Tom and Brenda Malloy of The Association for Gravestone Studies.
Gravestone for a Native American, Lakeville, MA.
Gravestone for a Native American, Lakeville, MA.
In Memory of Ben Simon the last Native American of Middleboro. He was a Revolutionary War Soldier and died in May 1831 aged 80 years.  Photography and Transcription Courtesy of Tom and Brenda Malloy of The Association for Gravestone Studies.
Commemorative Tablet near Contoocook Island, Boscawen, NH.
Commemorative Tablet near Contoocook Island, Boscawen, NH.
The island is at the confluence of the Merrimack and Contoocook Rivers. It is approximately fifty-five miles across land from Haverhill, Massachusetts.

Critical Commentary Related to "The Duston Family"

"The Escape of the Duston Family," illustration from "The Duston Family" by Nathaniel Hawthorne.
"The Escape of the Duston Family," illustration from "The Duston Family" by Nathaniel Hawthorne. (courtesy of Peabody Essex Museum, Salem, MA)
 
Excerpt from From Robert D. Arner’s "The Story Of Hannah Duston: Cotton Mather To Thoreau," p. 21.

Excerpt from The Story of Hannah Duston: Cotton Mather to Thoreau by Robert D. Arner

Excerpt from [Indian] Relationships With The Europeans by Claudia Durst Johnson

Excerpt from From Margaret B. Moore’s The Salem World of Nathaniel Hawthorne.University of Missouri Press, p. 131

Excerpt from Hawthorne’s Symbolic Use of Wilderness From Richard Slotkin’s Regeneration Through Violence:The Mythology of the American Frontier, 1600-1860.

Excerpt from The Mythology of the Indian Captivity Narrative From Richard Slotkin’s Regeneration Through Violence: The Mythology of the American Frontier, 1600-1860.

Excerpt from Thoreau’s Retelling of the Hannah Duston Story From Richard Slotkin’s Regeneration Through Violence: The Mythology of the American Frontier, 1600-1860.

Excerpt from Richard Vanderbeets on the Pattern and Significance of the Indian Captivity Narrative

From Gordon M. Sayre’s, American Captivity Narratives: Selected Narratives with Introduction, pages 179-81.

From Kathryn Whitford’s “Hannah Dustin: The Judgement of History,” pp. 318-320.

From Kathryn Whitford's "Hannah Dustin: The Judgement of History," p. 323.

From Kathryn Whitford’s “Hannah Dustin: The Judgement of History,”
pp. 324-325.

From Margaret B. Moore’s The Salem World of Nathaniel Hawthorne. (courtesy of University of Missouri Press), p. 19.

Excerpt from Witchcraft and the Indians, From "Maine, Indian Land Speculation, and the Essex County Witchcraft Outbreak of 1692" by Emerson W. Baker and James Kences.

Who Scalped Whom? Historians Suggest Indians Were As Much Victims As Perpetrators by Diane E. Foulds

Excerpt from Henry James' Hawthorne, Chapter II, "Early Manhood."

Excerpt from B. Bernard Cohen on Hawthorne's Borrowings from B. L. Mirick's The History of Haverhill, Massachusetts, 1832

Excerpts from Hannah Dustin: The Judgement of History by Kathryn Whitford

Introduction to Captivity Narrative of Hannah Duston, 1987, by Glenn Todd, pp. 5-10 (courtesy of Arion Press, San Francisco, and Glenn Todd).

Introduction by Glenn Todd (p. 5)
Introduction by Glenn Todd (p. 5)
From from Captivity Narrative of Hannah Duston,1987  (courtesy of Arion Press, San Francisco, and Glenn Todd)
Introduction by Glenn Todd (p. 6)
Introduction by Glenn Todd (p. 6)
From from Captivity Narrative of Hannah Duston,1987  (courtesy of Arion Press, San Francisco, and Glenn Todd)
Introduction by Glenn Todd (p. 7)
Introduction by Glenn Todd (p. 7)
From from Captivity Narrative of Hannah Duston,1987  (courtesy of Arion Press, San Francisco, and Glenn Todd)
Introduction by Glenn Todd (p. 8)
Introduction by Glenn Todd (p. 8)
From from Captivity Narrative of Hannah Duston,1987  (courtesy of Arion Press, San Francisco, and Glenn Todd)
Introduction by Glenn Todd (p. 9)
Introduction by Glenn Todd (p. 9)
From from Captivity Narrative of Hannah Duston,1987  (courtesy of Arion Press, San Francisco, and Glenn Todd)
Introduction by Glenn Todd (p. 10)
Introduction by Glenn Todd (p. 10)
From from Captivity Narrative of Hannah Duston,1987  (courtesy of Arion Press, San Francisco, and Glenn Todd)

Websites Related to "The Duston Family"

"The Escape of the Duston Family," illustration from "The Duston Family" by Nathaniel Hawthorne.
"The Escape of the Duston Family," illustration from "The Duston Family" by Nathaniel Hawthorne.(courtesy of Peabody Essex Museum, Salem, MA)
 

Explore Activities Related to Hawthorne's "The Duston Family"

"The Escape of the Duston Family," illustration from "The Duston Family" by Nathaniel Hawthorne.
"The Escape of the Duston Family," illustration from "The Duston Family" by Nathaniel Hawthorne. (courtesy of Peabody Essex Museum, Salem, MA)
 

1.) THE PURITAN IMAGINATION

A.) The following texts reveal much about the Puritan imagination and view of history. Mather's account, in particular, is a good example of Puritan theology and methodology at work. As you read and analyze these selections, answer the following questions: How does Puritanism affect the presentation and interpretation of the events? How does it affect the style of the writing? What assumptions are evident? What purposes? (Look closely at the portrayal of the Abenaki Indians, the English, and Hannah Duston, especially.)

Text of Original Accounts From Various Diaries (1697-1700) and from Cotton Mather's Magnalia Christi Americana; or The Ecclesiastical History of New England (1702).

Petition of Hannah and Thomas Duston, Mary Neff and Samuel Leonardson to the General Court of Massachusetts.

Twenty-seven years after her escape from the Indians, Hannah Duston sought full membership in the Second Church in Haverhill. As required, she came before the elders of the congregation to relate her conversion experience and prove her regeneration. As you read her brief and moving statement, speculate upon the following: What seems to be Hannah Duston's interpretation of her captivity experience? What personal, psychological consequences did she experience? What general insights do we gain about the personal uses of Indian captivity experiences by Puritan survivors?

Text of Hannah Duston's Letter to the Elders of the Second Church in Haverhill, 1724.

B.) The following images of title pages from Puritan-era books provide visual evidence of the Puritan view of Indian conflicts and English captives. Look closely at the language and particular word choice. What words and phrases are recurring and/or emphasized? What tone is communicated through the language? What emotions? What viewpoints are stated or implied? Several of these works are described as histories. Do you see these texts as histories or as fictions? Explain.

Title Page, Cotton Mather's sermon, "Humiliations followed by Deliverences," published in 1697.

Title PageDecennium Luctuosum by Cotton Mather, 1699.

Title Page, Cotton Mather's Magnalia Christi Americana, 1702.

Title Page, Increase Mather's A Brief History of the War with the Indians in New England, Boston, 1676.

Title Page, William Hubbard's Narrative of the Troubles with the Indians, Boston, 1677.

Title Page, Second Edition of Mary Rowlandson's The Soveraignty & Goodness of God, Together, With the Faithfulness of His Promises Displayed; Being a Narrative of the Captivity and Restoration of Mrs. Mary Rowlandson, 1682, Cambridge, 1682.

C.) The following websites provide additional information and visual resources related to Captivity Narratives and Puritan theology.

Colonial Fictions, Colonial Histories-Captives (An illustrated overview of several well-known Indian captivity narratives.)

Grace Online Library: "Adding to the Church: During the Early American Period" by Richard J. Bauckham. (An article on "the New England Way" and requirements for church membership.)

The Heath Anthology of American Literature, 4/e - Houghton Mifflin Co.: "Mary White Rowlandson (1637? -1711)" (Explains how one woman's trauma-ridden experience of captivity became an icon of a national ideology.)

Early American Captivity Narratives (Purposes, patterns, conventions, & themes):

2.) THE TRANSFORMATION OF THE DUSTON STORY

A.) The following retellings of the Duston story span one hundred and fifty years of New England history. Read each version and describe the overall transformation that occurs in the presentation of Hannah Duston. Then, look more closely at each text and describe the author's point of view towards the Indians, the landscape, the English, and the Dustons, both Thomas and Hannah, where applicable. What does each author emphasize in his treatment of the story? What moral issues or questions does each raise? What overall changes in cultural values and assumptions are evident by comparing these texts?

Text of 

Magnalia Christi Americana; or The Ecclesiastical History of New England (1702) by Cotton Mather (1663-1728)

Text of The Thomas and Hannah Dustin Story from "Letter XXXIX" in Travels in New England and New York, 1821-22, by Timothy Dwight.

Text of "The Mother's Revenge" from Legends of New England (1831) by John Greenleaf Whittier.

Text of "The Duston Family" by Nathaniel Hawthorne, 1836.

Text of H. D. Thoreau's Retelling of the Hannah Dustin Story, from A Week on the Concord and Merrimack Rivers, "Thursday" section, 1849.

B.) The following websites provide useful links to information and visual resources related to American literature and the specific cultural and historical contexts of the Duston stories.

Overview of Literary Movements (Donna M. Campbell, Gonzaga Univ)

U.S. HISTORY.COM: 
Historical Eras in U.S. History and
Massachusetts Bay Colony

AMERICAN LITERATURE ON THE WEB: 
Social Contexts for Early American Literature 1620-1820: (See resources under "New England," especially) 
Social Contexts for American Literature 1820-1865: (See resources under "The American Renaissance," especially)

 

3.) ART AND ILLUSTRATIONS: INTERPRETING CULTURE

A.) Images of Hannah Duston

Make some observations on the portrayal of Hannah Duston in the following art works and illustrations. What is emphasized in the work? What values and ideas are evident? What emotions does the work appeal to or communicate?

Hannah

Duston Statue and Monument, Contoocook Island, Penacook, New Hampshire

Hannah Duston Statue and Monument, Contoocook Island, Penacook, New Hampshire

Hannah Duston Memorial, Haverhill, Massachusetts

The Capture of Hannah Duston and Mary Neff

Hannah Dustin's Escape from Contoocook Island, New Hampshire, 1697

Dustin, Neff, and Leonardson, from Heroism of Hannah Duston, 1874

 

B.) Images of American Indians

Make some observations on the portrayal of American Indians and the Indian-White relationship in these 19th century illustrations and art works. Categorize the ways Indians are presented during this period. As you view the images, it's important to remember that they present Indians through Euro-American imagination and ideology. Consider the following questions while analyzing individual illustrations or art works: What is emphasized in the work? What ideas and values are evident? What emotions does the work appeal to or communicate?

The Escape of the

Duston Family

The Captive Maidens

The Death of Jane McCrea, by John Vanderlyn

Massacre of Settlers by the Indians

Encounter With Indians

Rescue Group, by Horatio Greenough

The War Dance, By The Ojibeway Indians, by George Catlin

A Sioux War Party, by George Catlin

Waapashaw, Sioux, by McKenney & Hall

Ash-E-Taa-Na-Quet, A Celebrated Chipppeway Chief, by James Otto Lewis

Wanata, Sioux Indian Chief, by McKenney & Hall

The White Cloud, Head Chief of the Iowas, by George Catlin

Buffalo Bull's Back Fat--Head Chief, Blood Tribe, by George Catlin

Chief of the Blood Indians, War Chief of the Piekann Indians, Koutani Indian, by Karl Bodmer

The Trapper's Bride, by Alfred Jacob Miller

Indian Girl, by Hiram Powers

Indian Squaw Swinging from a Tree

The Indian Beauty, by Currier and Ives

The Last of the Wampanoags, by G. I. Brown

American Progress, by John Gast

Indian Chief Contemplating the Progress of Civilization, by Thomas G. Crawford

War and Pestilence, Indian Massacre

C.) The following websites provide additional American art images and articles on American art history.

American Art History-Selected Images (Choate American Studies Program): See "The Captivity Myth" and "Native Americans in Early American Art."

Smithsonian American Art Museum

American Art History Resources & Distinguished Artists Series

D.) Artwork by American Indians of the Northeast

In the oral cultures of American Indians, artwork serves as a visual language that expresses the lives and worldviews of the people. Through signs and symbols, function and form each work speaks or tells a story rich in history and belief. Study the following images and make observations on the form and design of each; consider the materials, as well. Describe what you find aesthetically pleasing or interesting. Explain how the object provides insight into the lifeways and culture, the beliefs and values of the creator. Make note of symbols or decorative motifs that you see as important or puzzling. In the 19th century, Euro-American ideas of "art" defined American Indian creations as "craft"-expressions of the primitive or naïve-not as sophisticated as the "high" art of the Western world. Do you agree? Collectively, how might these works, tell a different story, and offer an alternative view to the "official" white explanations of Indians and early American history?

Black Stone Bear. Igneous Rock. Pawtucket

Deerskin Pouch with Fur, Porcupine Quills, and Metal Chimes. Pawtucket

Chief's Collar, Penobscot

Hunting Coat, Delaware or Shawnee

Moccasins with Blue and Red, Iroquois

Box, Montagnais

Oval Box, Micmac

Cradleboard, Ojibwa

Tray, Huron

Ball Head Club, Iroquois

Powder Horn, Penobscot

Burden Strap, Iroquois

Two-Tone Porcupine Weave Basket, Barbara D. Francis, Penobscot

An 18-Foot Reproduction Birch Bark Canoe

Old Style Penobscot Indian Birch Bark Canoe

E.) The following websites and links provide additional images of American Indian art and articles on American Indian traditions and artistic expression.

From "Reading the Signs" by David W. Penney

Native American Art (MSN Encarta Encyclopedia Article)

Native American Art: Overview (Saddleback College Seminar)

Native American Indian Art

The Indians of the Northeast (Culture Area)

4.) CREATIVE WRITING ACTIVITY

The Indian cultures of early New England were oral cultures. Indian narrative traditions were rich, but they did not produce written texts. The written accounts of Euro-American colonists became the "official" story and record of early New England history. Native voices were marginalized or silenced. For this activity, consider the Indian point of view on the Haverhill Raid of 1697 and on Hannah Duston's captivity and escape. Write an Indian version of the Duston story from the point of view of the Abenaki Indians or, in particular, the Indian boy or woman who escaped alive from Contoocook Island. Consult Cotton Mather's account and some of the websites /links below for facts on the event and historic information on the Abenaki Indians and "King William's War."

Captive Hannah Bradley's Account

First Nations Histories

Abenaki and Pennacook Indians 
Indian Wars: King William's War 
King William's War


U.S. History.Com 

Original Inhabitants of New Hampshire
Early History of New Hampshire and Maine
History & Culture of the Wabanaki People


From Joseph Dow's History Of Hampton King William's War, 1689-1698.

Lectures and Articles Related to "The Duston Family"

"The Escape of the Duston Family," illustration from "The Duston Family" by Nathaniel Hawthorne.
"The Escape of the Duston Family," illustration from "The Duston Family" by Nathaniel Hawthorne. (courtesy of Peabody Essex Museum, Salem, MA)
 

"The Story Of Hannah Duston: Cotton Mather To Thoreau,"by Robert D. Arner. in American Transcendental Quarterly, 18 (1973). 19-23.

Whitford, Kathryn. “Hannah Dustin: The Judgement of History.”Essex Institute Historical Collections. Vol. CVIII, No. 4 (October 1972), 304-325. Used with permission.

 

Who Scalped Whom? Historians Suggest Indians Were As Much Victims As Perpetrators by Diane E. Foulds

Massacre on the Merrimack: Hannah Duston’s Captivity and Revenge in Colonial America. Youtube video in which Atkinson talks about his book at North Shore Community College. 20 April, 2017.